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Artykuły :: Transport :: Conference papers

Adaptation of electromagnetic compatibility in railways
Andrzej BIAŁOŃ, Paweł GRADOWSKI
2007-05-30 14:17:48

Electromagnetic compatibility this surely for majority new notion. It he was not it one should was identify from generally the well-known notion of compatibility e.g. the computers, which marks under regard of practical technical solutions, possibility of adaptation of data the agreement and the usage the same software’s, free flow of information among different systems etc. The EMC this nothing of different how the ability of electronic devices, or systems railway installations to correct running in definite electromagnetic environment without initiation of to environment the additional electromagnetic disorders or to different the railway devices which the correct running would can be with this the prosecution disturbed. By electromagnetic environment the reason oneself here use the of device definite with level and character of disorders place (ycleped yet recently the disturbances) coming from their sources. One should turn attention, that objects can be with sources emitter electromagnetic waves on purpose (e.g. television stations and radio) how and non be go to (e.g.. electric practical by train dispatcher equipment). The notions of release of disorders and resistance in frames of electromagnetic compatibility were distinguished on disorder. Every working electric device is the source of electromagnetic disorders about different levels and character. The release radiated field of disorders is such disorder that is the propagation of electromagnetic wave. How in every field of life (in running, in house, in trains) such state can call out sure anomaly.

The state of electromagnetic compatibility is obtained then when devices operate in their presence correctly. It is possible state such to reach for example in situation, when the emitted by it the level disorders as well as the requirements fulfil on disorder their resistance the e.g. of standard of product or group products.

Studying to electromagnetic compatibility it is not in Poland new thing. It Poland beginning the endeavour about party in rows of European Community, it was had was to calculate with necessity of change this juncture. Since 1 January 1996 in member countries is in force Directive 89/336/EEC with day 3 May 1986 relating electromagnetic compatibility. The criterions in her result came into being (the of standard harmonised) what in range of release and resistance on disorder have to be fulfilled through introduced on market electric devices and electronic.

In next years directive this waited for several updating. At the beginning XXI century in frames of close relations of legislation the Members States, Directive 89/336 / the EEC, the review was subjected in thought of initiative well known as simpler legislation the handicap the internal market (SLIM). Both the case SLIM how and the next deep consultation produced the need of supplement, the strengthened and explanation of frames set Directive 89/336/EEC. Resolution 15 December 2004 was effect of these changes Directive 2004/108/EC the in matter of close relations of legislation the Member States pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility as well as repealing directive 89/336/EEC the.

Protection against electromagnetic disturbance requires obligations to be imposed on the various economic operators. Those obligations should be applied in a fair and effective way in order to achieve such protection. The electromagnetic compatibility of equipment should be regulated with a view to ensuring the functioning of the internal market, that is to say, of an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is assured.

The equipment covered by Directive 2004/108/EC should include both apparatus and fixed installations. However, separate provision should be made for each. This is so because, whereas apparatus as such may move freely within the Community, fixed installations on the other hand are installed for permanent use at a predefined location, as assemblies of various types of apparatus and, where appropriate, other devices. The composition and function of such installations correspond in most cases to the particular needs of their operators. In addition Directive need not regulate equipment, which is inherently benign in terms of electromagnetic compatibility.

The legacies of this Directive do not it take over radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment, because, they are already regulated by Directive 1999/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 1999 on radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity3. The electromagnetic compatibility requirements in both Directives achieve the same level of protection.

In accordance with a new approach to technical harmonisation and standards, that approach, the design and manufacture of equipment is subject to essential requirements in relation to electromagnetic compatibility. Those requirements are given technical expression by harmonised European standards, to be adopted by the various European standardisation bodies, European Committee for Standardisation (CEN), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation (CENELEC) and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Harmonised standards reflect the generally acknowledged state of the art as regards electromagnetic compatibility matters in the European Union. It is thus in the interest of the functioning of the internal market to have standards for the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment, which have been harmonised at Community level. Once the reference to such a standard has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union, compliance with it should raise a presumption of conformity with the relevant essential requirements, although other means of demonstrating such conformity should be permitted. Compliance with a harmonised standard means conformity with its provisions and demonstration thereof by the methods the harmonised standard describes or refers to.

Manufacturers of equipment intended to be connected to networks should construct such equipment in a way that prevents networks from suffering unacceptable degradation of service when used under normal operating conditions. Network operators should construct their networks in such a way that manufacturers of equipment liable to be connected to networks do not suffer a disproportionate burden in order to prevent networks from suffering an unacceptable degradation of service. The European standardisation organisations should take due account of that objective (including the cumulative effects of the relevant types of electromagnetic phenomena) when developing harmonised standards.

It should be possible to place apparatus on the market or put it into service only if the manufacturers concerned have established that such apparatus has been designed and manufactured in conformity with the requirements of this Directive. Apparatus placed on the market should bear the “CE” marking attesting to compliance with this Directive. Although conformity assessment should be the responsibility of the manufacturer, without any need to involve an independent conformity assessment body, manufacturers should be free to use the services of such a body.

The conformity assessment obligation should require the manufacturer to perform an electromagnetic compatibility assessment of apparatus, based on relevant phenomena, in order to determine whether or not it meets the protection requirements under Directive 2004/108/EC.

Where apparatus is capable of taking different configurations, the electromagnetic compatibility assessment should confirm whether the apparatus meets the protection requirements in the configurations foreseeable by the manufacturer as representative of normal use in the intended applications; in such cases it should be sufficient to perform an assessment on the basis of the configuration most likely to cause maximum disturbance and the configuration most susceptible to disturbance.

Fixed installations, including large machines and networks, may generate electromagnetic disturbance, or be affected by it. There may be an interface between fixed installations and apparatus, and the electromagnetic disturbances produced by fixed installations may affect apparatus, and vice versa. In terms of electromagnetic compatibility, it is irrelevant whether the electromagnetic disturbance is produced by apparatus or by a fixed installation. Accordingly, fixed installations and apparatus should be subject to a coherent and comprehensive regime of essential requirements. It should be possible to use harmonised standards for fixed installations in order to demonstrate conformity with the essential requirements covered by such standards.

Due to their specific characteristics, fixed installations need not be subject to the affixation of the “CE” marking or to the declaration of conformity.

It is not pertinent to carry out the conformity assessment of apparatus placed on the market for incorporation into a given fixed installation, and otherwise not commercially available, in isolation from the fixed installation into which it is to be incorporated. Such apparatus should therefore be exempted from the conformity assessment procedures normally applicable to apparatus. However, such apparatus should not be permitted to compromise the conformity of the fixed installation into which it is incorporated. Should apparatus be incorporated into more than one identical fixed installation, identifying the electromagnetic compatibility characteristics of these installations should be sufficient to ensure exemption from the conformity assessment procedure.

Article 1 Directive2004/108/EC regulates the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment. It aims to ensure the functioning of the internal market by requiring equipment (from disconnection equipment covered by Directive 1999/5/EC; aeronautical products, parts and appliances as referred to in Regulation (EC) No 1592/20024; radio equipment used by radio amateurs within the meaning of the Radio Regulations adopted in the framework) to comply with an adequate level of electromagnetic compatibility.

Directive 2004/108/EC shall not apply to equipment the inherent nature of the physical characteristics of which is such that: it is incapable of generating or contributing to electromagnetic emissions which exceed a level allowing radio and telecommunication equipment and other equipment to operate as intended; and it will operate without unacceptable degradation in the presence of the electromagnetic disturbance normally consequent upon its intended use. Additionally Directive 2004/108/EC shall not affect the application of Community or national legislation regulating the safety of equipment.

Member States, in compliance with article 3 Directive 2004/108/EC, shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that equipment is placed on the market and/or put into service only if it complies with the requirements of this Directive when properly installed, maintained and used for its intended purpose.

Article 4 it guarantees free movement of equipment. Member States shall not impede, for reasons relating to electromagnetic compatibility, the placing on the market and/ or the putting into service in their territory of equipment.

“Harmonised standard” introduced with Article 6 Directive2004/108/EC means a technical specification adopted by a recognised European standardisation body under a mandate from the Commission in conformity with the procedures laid down in Directive 98/34/EC for the purpose of establishing a European requirement. Compliance with a ‘harmonised standard’ is not compulsory. The compliance of equipment with the relevant harmonised standards whose references have been published in the Official Journal of the European Union shall raise a presumption, on the part of the Member States, of conformity with the essential requirements referred to in Annex concerning general requirements, to which such standards relate. This presumption of conformity is limited to the scope of the harmonised standard(s) applied and the relevant essential requirements covered by such harmonised standard(s). Where a Member State or the Commission considers that a harmonised standard does not entirely satisfy the essential requirements, it shall bring the matter before the Standing Committee set up by Directive 98/34/EC, stating its reasons. The Committee shall deliver an opinion without delay. Upon receipt of the Committee's opinion, the Commission shall take one of the following decisions with regard to the references to the harmonised standard concerned: not to publish; to publish with restrictions; to maintain the reference in the Official Journal of the European Union; or to withdraw the reference from the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 8 Directive 2004/108 / EC remains moved “CE” marking. Apparatus whose compliance with this Directive has been established by means of the procedure opinion of compatibility of equipment shall bear the ‘CE’ marking which attests to that fact. The affixing of the “CE” marking shall be the responsibility of the manufacturer or his authorised representative in the Community. Member States shall take the necessary measures to prohibit the affixing to the apparatus, or to its packaging, or to the instructions for its use, of marks which are likely to mislead third parties in relation to the meaning and/or graphic form of the “CE” marking. Any other mark may be affixed to the apparatus, its packaging, or the instructions for its use, provided that neither the visibility nor the legibility of the “CE” marking is thereby impaired.

Where a Member State ascertains that apparatus bearing the “CE” marking does not comply with the requirements of Directive 2004/108/EC, it shall in accordance with Article 10 take all appropriate measures to withdraw the apparatus from the market, to prohibit its placing on the market or its putting into service, or to restrict the free movement thereof.

Any decision taken pursuant to in accordance with Article 12 Directive 2004/108/EC to withdraw apparatus from the market, prohibit or restrict its placing on the market or its putting into service, or restrict the free movement thereof, shall state the exact grounds on which it is based. Such decisions shall be notified without delay to the party concerned, who shall at the same time be informed of the remedies available to him under the national law in force in the Member State in question and of the time limits to which such remedies are subject. In the event of a decision, the manufacturer, his authorised representative, or any other interested party shall have the opportunity to put forward his point of view in advance, unless such consultation is not possible because of the urgency of the measure to be taken as justified in particular with respect to public interest requirements.

Member States shall notify the Commission of the bodies, which they have designated to carry out the tasks, referred to in Annex conformity assessment procedure. When determining the bodies to be designated, Member States shall apply the criteria laid down in Annex criteria for the assessment of the bodies to be notified. Such notification shall state whether the bodies are designated to carry out the tasks referred to in Annex conformity assessment procedure for all apparatus covered by this Directive 2004/108/EC, and/or the essential requirements referred to in Annex essential requirements or whether the scope of designation is limited to certain specific aspects and/or categories of apparatus. Bodies which comply with the assessment criteria established by the relevant harmonised standards shall be presumed to comply with the criteria set out in Annex criteria for the assessment of the bodies to be notified covered by such harmonised standards. The Commission shall publish in the Official Journal of the European Union the references of those standards.

Directive 89/336/EEC in accordance with Article 14 is hereby repealed as from 20 July 2007.

References to Directive 89/336/EEC shall be construed as references to Directive 2004/108/EC and should be read in accordance with the correlation table set out in Annex correlation table.

Article 15 Directive 2004/108/EC moves at Member States obligation shall not impede the placing on the market and/or the putting into service of equipment which is in compliance with the provisions of Directive 89/336/EEC and which was placed on the market before 20 July 2009.

Member States shall adopt and publish the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 20 January 2007. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof. They shall apply those provisions as from 20 July 2007. When Member States adopt those provisions, they shall contain a reference to Directive 2004/108/EC or shall be accompanied by such reference on the occasion of their official publication. Member States shall lay down the methods of making such reference. Additionally Member States shall communicate to the Commission the texts of the provisions of national law, which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive.

BIBLOGRAPHY
[1] Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (Official Journal L 139, 23/05/1989)
[2] Directive 2004/108/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2004 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility and repealing Directive 89/336/EEC (Official Journal L 390, 31/12/2004)
[3] BIAŁON A., GRADOWSKI P., MAKAŁA J. „Kompatybilnosc elektromagnetyczna w Dyrektywie 2004/108”, Technika Transportu Szynowego TTS 7-8/2005, str. 72-75, (in Polish)

Andrzej BIAŁOŃ
Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Railway Scientific and Technical Centre
Paweł GRADOWSKI
Railway Scientific and Technical Centre

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